Views about Judeo Christian eschatology are often limited to the coming of the kingdom of God and the transformation or transcendence of history.
The immortality of the soul, the second advent of Christ, or Parousia, the End of the World, resurrection of the dead, Final Judgment, renewal of the creation, Heaven and Hell, the consummation of all of God's purposes, are other relevant issues of eschatology.
In the Roman Catholic church, eschatology includes, additionally, the beatific vision, purgatory, and limbo.
The distinction between transformation and transcendence reflects the difference between Old Testament messianism, which looked for the coming of the kingdom of God within a historical framework, and New Testament apocalypticism, which expected the total dissolution of the world at the last judgment).
Eschatology has been a revived theme among theologians in the 20th century. In the second half of the 20th century, eschatology was equated by some theologians with the doctrine of Christian hope, including not only the events of the end of time but also the hope itself and its revolutionizing influence on life in the world.
The most eloquent exponent of this eschatology is the German theologian Jürgen Moltmann. Other radical theologians have provided various interpretations of the book of Revelation and other prophetic parts of the Bible, such as the Book of Daniel, and various sayings of Jesus in the Gospels have given way to the "consistent eschatology" of Johannes Weiss and Albert Schweitzer, the "realized eschatology" of C H Dodd and Rudolf Otto; the "dialectic eschatology" of Karl Barth and Rudolf Bultmann, and the "death of God" eschatology of Thomas J J Altizer.
There are various controversies concerning the order of events leading to and following the return of Jesus, and the religious significance of these events for Christians living now, which are discussed by Christians under the rubric of "eschatology".
In addition to the prophecies and other doctrines of the Bible, there are also traditional teachings, or writings of people supposed to be extraordinarily gifted with insight into spiritual things, or granted gifts of prophecy or a special visitation by messengers from heaven, such as angels, saints, or Christ. Such extra-biblical revelations have additional eschatological significance for those who believe them.
In fact, it is fundamental to nearly all traditions of Christianity that death and dying will not be finally removed from the earth until the second coming of Christ. Suffering, disease, injustice and war will continue until the end of the world, according to the Christian view of last things.
The Christian hope will not be realized in this lifetime, and instead has the practical purpose of instructing the Christian to pray and work for a fuller measure of those blessings now. However, there are dissenting traditions, which teach it to be an ethical or moral principle that all suffering ought to be eliminated prior to Christ's return.
Some books of the Bible appear to deny the existence of the afterlife. (The following quotes are from the new JPS translation.)